I was thinking about rhyming three letter English words (e.g. sat/set/sit), and was wondering if there were any groups where all five vowels were represented. I wrote some code to find them.
To find rhyming sets, I needed a list of words. I ended up using a JSON-encoded version of Webster's English dictionary I found on GitHub. The repo mentions that the JSON file was built using a 2009 version of the dictionary with some known omissions, but I figured it would be good enough.
My first attempt at this used a list of the 25k most popular words, but I found this contained a lot of three letter abbreviations (e.g. ads, bio, cos).
My code found the following rhyming sets (you can click on words to see their definitions):
Reading through these, there are some which scrape through using old archaic words. Let's order the sets in terms of how valid they seem.
1. Obviously correct - children would understand all words
2. Correct, but uses words I needed to look up
dun. "Dan" is an imported Japanese word for a level of Karate proficiency. "Dun" is a "dull greyish-brown colour".
tun. "Tun" is brewing term for a cask of wine or beer.
3. Correct, but uses very modern words
but. This uses "bot" (e.g. a "Twitter bot"). It'll be interesting to see if the word is still in popular usage in a few years or decades.
gut. "Gat" as in the slang for a gun. "Git" is English slang for an unpleasant person.
4. Uses alternate or archaic spellings of modern words
- I was surprised that I only found two sets of obviously correct sets.
- The other side of the same coin - I was surprised by how many pronounceable three letter words aren't real words. By comparison, short domain names are desirable, and there is an organic mechanism that English words shorted (e.g. God-be-with-you to goodbye, fourteen-night to fortnight).
- 1. A sack or pouch, used for holding anything; as, a bag of meal or of money. 2. A sac, or dependent gland, in animal bodies, containing some fluid or other substance; as, the bag of poison in the mouth of some serpents; the bag of a cow. 3. A sort of silken purse formerly tied about men's hair behind, by way of ornament. [Obs.] 4. The quantity of game bagged. 5. (Com.) A certain quantity of a commodity, such as it is customary to carry to market in a sack; as, a bag of pepper or hops; a bag of coffee. Bag and baggage, all that belongs to one. -- To give one the bag, to disappoint him. [Obs.] Bunyan.
1. To put into a bag; as, to bag hops. 2. To seize, capture, or entrap; as, to bag an army; to bag game. 3. To furnish or load with a bag or with a well filled bag. A bee bagged with his honeyed venom. Dryden.
1. To swell or hang down like a full bag; as, the skin bags from containing morbid matter. 2. To swell with arrogance. [Obs.] Chaucer. 3. To become pregnant. [Obs.] Warner. (Alb. Eng. ).
- 1. A public proclamation or edict; a public order or notice, mandatory or prohibitory; a summons by public proclamation. 2. (Feudal & Mil.) A calling together of the king's (esp. the French king's) vassals for military service; also, the body of vassals thus assembled or summoned. In present usage, in France and Prussia, the most effective part of the population liable to military duty and not in the standing army. 3. pl. Notice of a proposed marriage, proclaimed in church. See Banns (the common spelling in this sense). 4. An interdiction, prohibition, or proscription. "Under ban to touch." Milton. 5. A curse or anathema. "Hecate's ban." Shak. 6. A pecuniary mulct or penalty laid upon a delinquent for offending against a ban; as, a mulct paid to a bishop by one guilty of sacrilege or other crimes. Ban of the empire (German Hist.), an imperial interdict by which political rights and privileges, as those of a prince, city, or district, were taken away.
1. To curse; to invoke evil upon. Sir W. Scott. 2. To forbid; to interdict. Byron.
To curse; to swear. [Obs.] Spenser.
An ancient title of the warden of the eastern marches of Hungary; now, a title of the viceroy of Croatia and Slavonia.
- 1. A large stick; a club; specifically, a piece of wood with one end thicker or broader than the other, used in playing baseball, cricket, etc. 2. (Mining) Shale or bituminous shale. Kirwan. 3. A sheet of cotton used for filling quilts or comfortables; batting. 4. A part of a brick with one whole end. Bat bolt (Machinery), a bolt barbed or jagged at its butt or tang to make it hold the more firmly. Knight.
To strike or hit with a bat or a pole; to cudgel; to beat. Holland.
To use a bat, as in a game of baseball.
One of the Cheiroptera, an order of flying mammals, in which the wings are formed by a membrane stretched between the elongated fingers, legs, and tail. The common bats are small and insectivorous. See Cheiroptera and Vampire. Bat tick (Zoöl.), a wingless, dipterous insect of the genus Nycteribia, parasitic on bats.
- A title of honor in Turkey and in some other parts of the East; a bey.
1. To ask earnestly for; to entreat or supplicate for; to beseech. I do beg your good will in this case. Shak. [Joseph] begged the body of Jesus. Matt. xxvii. 58. Note: Sometimes implying deferential and respectful, rather than earnest, asking; as, I beg your pardon; I beg leave to disagree with you. 2. To ask for as a charity, esp. to ask for habitually or from house to house. Yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed begging bread. Ps. xxxvii. 25. 3. To make petition to; to entreat; as, to beg a person to grant a favor. 4. To take for granted; to assume without proof. 5. (Old Law) To ask to be appointed guardian for, or to ask to have a guardian appointed for. Else some will beg thee, in the court of wards. Harrington. Hence: To beg (one) for a fool, to take him for a fool. I beg to, is an elliptical expression for I beg leave to; as, I beg to inform you. -- To bag the question, to assume that which was to be proved in a discussion, instead of adducing the proof or sustaining the point by argument. -- To go a-begging, a figurative phrase to express the absence of demand for something which elsewhere brings a price; as, grapes are so plentiful there that they go a-begging. Syn. -- To Beg, Ask, Request. To ask (not in the sense of inquiring) is the generic term which embraces all these words. To request is only a polite mode of asking. To beg, in its original sense, was to ask with earnestness, and implied submission, or at least deference. At present, however, in polite life, beg has dropped its original meaning, and has taken the place of both ask and request, on the ground of its expressing more of deference and respect. Thus, we beg a person's acceptance of a present; we beg him to favor us with his company; a tradesman begs to announce the arrival of new goods, etc. Crabb remarks that, according to present usage, "we can never talk of asking a person's acceptance of a thing, or of asking him to do us a favor." This can be more truly said of usage in England than in America.
To ask alms or charity, especially to ask habitually by the wayside or from house to house; to live by asking alms. I can not dig; to beg I am ashamed. Luke xvi. 3.
- The seed of one or more species of moringa; as, oil of ben. See Moringa.
Within; in; in or into the interior; toward the inner apartment. [Scot.]
The inner or principal room in a hut or house of two rooms; -- opposed to but, the outer apartment. [Scot.]
An old form of the pl. indic. pr. of Be. [Obs.]
A hoglike mammal of New Guinea (Porcula papuensis).
- That which is laid, staked, or pledged, as between two parties, upon the event of a contest or any contingent issue; the act of giving such a pledge; a wager. "Having made his bets." Goldsmith.
To stake or pledge upon the event of a contingent issue; to wager. John a Gaunt loved him well, and betted much money on his head. Shak. I'll bet you two to one I'll make him do it. O. W. Holmes.
imp. & p. p. of Beat. [Obs.]
An early form of Better. [Obs.] To go bet, to go fast; to hurry. [Obs.] Chaucer.
- 1. Having largeness of size; of much bulk or magnitude; of great size; large. "He's too big to go in there." Shak. 2. Great with young; pregnant; swelling; ready to give birth or produce; -- often figuratively. [Day] big with the fate of Cato and of Rome. Addison. 3. Having greatness, fullness, importance, inflation, distention, etc., whether in a good or a bad sense; as, a big heart; a big voice; big looks; to look big. As applied to looks, it indicates haughtiness or pride. God hath not in heaven a bigger argument. Jer. Taylor. Note: Big is often used in self-explaining compounds; as, big-boned; big-sounding; big-named; big-voiced. To talk big, to talk loudly, arrogantly, or pretentiously. I talked big to them at first. De Foe. Syn. -- Bulky; large; great; massive; gross.
Barley, especially the hardy four-rowed kind. "Bear interchanges in local use, now with barley, now with bigg." New English Dict.
To build. [Scot. & North of Eng. Dial.] Sir W. Scott.
- A box, frame, crib, or inclosed place, used as a receptacle for any commodity; as, a corn bin; a wine bin; a coal bin.
To put into a bin; as, to bin wine.
An old form of Be and Been. [Obs.]
A euphonic form of the prefix Bi-.
- 1. The part of a bridle, usually of iron, which is inserted in the mouth of a horse, and having appendages to which the reins are fastened. Shak. The foamy bridle with the bit of gold. Chaucer. 2. Fig.: Anything which curbs or restrains.
To put a bridle upon; to put the bit in the mouth of.
imp. & p. p. of Bite.
1. A part of anything, such as may be bitten off or taken into the mouth; a morsel; a bite. Hence: A small piece of anything; a little; a mite. 2. Somewhat; something, but not very great. My young companion was a bit of a poet. T. Hook. Note: This word is used, also, like jot and whit, to express the smallest degree; as, he is not a bit wiser. 3. A tool for boring, of various forms and sizes, usually turned by means of a brace or bitstock. See Bitstock. 4. The part of a key which enters the lock and acts upon the bolt and tumblers. Knight. 5. The cutting iron of a plane. Knight. 6. In the Southern and Southwestern States, a small silver coin (as the real) formerly current; commonly, one worth about 12 1/2 cents; also, the sum of 12 1/2 cents. Bit my bit, piecemeal. Pope.
of Bid, for biddeth. [Obs.] Chaucer.
- 1. A quagmire filled with decayed moss and other vegetable matter; wet spongy ground where a heavy body is apt to sink; a marsh; a morass. Appalled with thoughts of bog, or caverned pit, Of treacherous earth, subsiding where they tread. R. Jago. 2. A little elevated spot or clump of earth, roots, and grass, in a marsh or swamp. [Local, U. S.] Bog bean. See Buck bean. -- Bog bumper (bump, to make a loud noise), Bog blitter, Bog bluiter, Bog jumper, the bittern. [Prov.] -- Bog butter, a hydrocarbon of butterlike consistence found in the peat bogs of Ireland. -- Bog earth (Min.), a soil composed for the most part of silex and partially decomposed vegetable fiber. P. Cyc. -- Bog moss. (Bot.) Same as Sphagnum. -- Bog myrtle (Bot.), the sweet gale. -- Bog ore. (Min.) (a) An ore of iron found in boggy or swampy land; a variety of brown iron ore, or limonite. (b) Bog manganese, the hydrated peroxide of manganese. -- Bog rush (Bot.), any rush growing in bogs; saw grass. -- Bog spavin. See under Spavin.
To sink, as into a bog; to submerge in a bog; to cause to sink and stick, as in mud and mire. At another time, he was bogged up to the middle in the slough of Lochend. Sir W. Scott.
- Good; valid as security for something.
- See Bots.
- 1. A bugbear; anything which terrifies. [Obs.] Sir, spare your threats: The bug which you would fright me with I seek. Shak. 2. (Zoöl.) A general name applied to various insects belonging to the Hemiptera; as, the squash bug; the chinch bug, etc. 3. (Zoöl.) An insect of the genus Cimex, especially the bedbug (C. lectularius). See Bedbug. 4. (Zoöl.) One of various species of Coleoptera; as, the ladybug; potato bug, etc.; loosely, any beetle. 5. (Zoöl.) One of certain kinds of Crustacea; as, the sow bug; pill bug; bait bug; salve bug, etc. Note: According to present popular usage in England, and among housekeepers in America, bug, when not joined with some qualifying word, is used specifically for bedbug. As a general term it is used very loosely in America, and was formerly used still more loosely in England. "God's rare workmanship in the ant, the poorest bug that creeps." Rogers (Naaman). "This bug with gilded wings." Pope. Bait bug. See under Bait. -- Bug word, swaggering or threatening language. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.
- A slightly sweetened raised cake or bisquit with a glazing of sugar and milk on the top crust.
- 1. Except with; unless with; without. [Obs.] So insolent that he could not go but either spurning equals or trampling on his inferiors. Fuller. Touch not the cat but a glove. Motto of the Mackintoshes. 2. Except; besides; save. Who can it be, ye gods! but perjured Lycon E. Smith. Note: In this sense, but is often used with other particles; as, but for, without, had it not been for. "Uncreated but for love divine." Young. 3. Excepting or excluding the fact that; save that; were it not that; unless; -- elliptical, for but that. And but my noble Moor is true of mind . . . it were enough to put him to ill thinking. Shak. 4. Otherwise than that; that not; -- commonly, after a negative, with that. It cannot be but nature hath some director, of infinite power, to guide her in all her ways. Hooker. There is no question but the king of Spain will reform most of the abuses. Addison. 5. Only; solely; merely. Observe but how their own principles combat one another. Milton. If they kill us, we shall but die. 2 Kings vii. 4. A formidable man but to his friends. Dryden. 6. On the contrary; on the other hand; only; yet; still; however; nevertheless; more; further; -- as connective of sentences or clauses of a sentence, in a sense more or less exceptive or adversative; as, the House of Representatives passed the bill, but the Senate dissented; our wants are many, but quite of another kind. Now abideth faith hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity. 1 Cor. xiii. 13. When pride cometh, then cometh shame; but with the lowly is wisdom. Prov. xi. 2. All but. See under All. -- But and if, but if; an attempt on the part of King James's translators of the Bible to express the conjunctive and adversative force of the Greek But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; . . . the lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him. Luke xii. 45, 46. But if, unless. [Obs.] Chaucer. But this I read, that but if remedy Thou her afford, full shortly I her dead shall see. Spenser. Syn. -- But, However, Still. These conjunctions mark opposition in passing from one thought or topic to another. But marks the opposition with a medium degree of strength; as, this is not winter, but it is almost as cold; he requested my assistance, but I shall not aid him at present. However is weaker, and throws the opposition (as it were) into the background; as, this is not winter; it is, however, almost as cold; he required my assistance; at present, however, I shall not afford him aid. The plan, however, is still under consideration, and may yet be adopted. Still is stronger than but, and marks the opposition more emphatically; as, your arguments are weighty; still they do not convince me. See Except, However. Note: "The chief error with but is to use it where and is enough; an error springing from the tendency to use strong words without sufficient occasio,." Bain.
The outer apartment or kitchen of a two-roomed house; -- opposed to ben, the inner room. [Scot.]
1. A limit; a boundary. 2. The end; esp. the larger or thicker end, or the blunt, in distinction from the sharp, end. See 1st Butt. But end, the larger or thicker end; as, the but end of a log; the but end of a musket. See Butt, n.
See Butt, v., and Abut, v.
1. A limit; a bound; a goal; the extreme bound; the end. Here is my journey's end, here my butt And very sea mark of my utmost sail. Shak. Note: As applied to land, the word is nearly synonymous with mete, and signifies properly the end line or boundary; the abuttal. 2. The thicker end of anything. See But. 3. A mark to be shot at; a target. Sir W. Scott. The groom his fellow groom at butts defies, And bends his bow, and levels with his eyes. Dryden. 4. A person at whom ridicule, jest, or contempt is directed; as, the butt of the company. I played a sentence or two at my butt, which I thought very smart. Addison. 5. A push, thrust, or sudden blow, given by the head of an animal; as, the butt of a ram. 6. A thrust in fencing. To prove who gave the fairer butt, John shows the chalk on Robert's coat. Prior. 7. A piece of land left unplowed at the end of a field. The hay was growing upon headlands and butts in cornfields. Burrill. 8. (Mech.) (a) A joint where the ends of two objects come squarely together without scrafing or chamfering; -- also called butt joint. (b) The end of a connecting rod or other like piece, to which the boxing is attached by the strap, cotter, and gib. (c) The portion of a half-coupling fastened to the end of a hose. 9. (Shipbuilding) The joint where two planks in a strake meet. 10. (Carp.) A kind of hinge used in hanging doors, etc.; -- so named because fastened on the edge of the door, which butts against the casing, instead of on its face, like the strap hinge; also called butt hinge. 11. (Leather Trade) The thickest and stoutest part of tanned oxhides, used for soles of boots, harness, trunks. 12. The hut or shelter of the person who attends to the targets in rifle practice. Butt chain (Saddlery), a short chain attached to the end of a tug. -- Butt end. The thicker end of anything. See But end, under 2d But. Amen; and make me die a good old man! That's the butt end of a mother's blessing. Shak. A butt's length, the ordinary distance from the place of shooting to the butt, or mark. -- Butts and bounds (Conveyancing), abuttals and boundaries. In lands of the ordinary rectangular shape, butts are the lines at the ends (F. bouts), and bounds are those on the sides, or sidings, as they were formerly termed. Burrill. -- Bead and butt. See under Bead. -- Butt and butt, joining end to end without overlapping, as planks. -- Butt weld (Mech.), a butt joint, made by welding together the flat ends, or edges, of a piece of iron or steel, or of separate pieces, without having them overlap. See Weld. -- Full butt, headfirst with full force. [Colloq.] "The corporal . . . ran full butt at the lieutenant." Marryat.
- A title of honor equivalent to master, or sir. [Obs.] Old Dan Geoffry, in gently spright The pure wellhead of poetry did dwell. Spenser. What time Dan Abraham left the Chaldee land. Thomson.
A small truck or sledge used in coal mines.
- 1. A small cavern or hollow place in the side of a hill, or among rocks; esp., a cave used by a wild beast for shelter or concealment; as, a lion's den; a den of robbers. 2. A squalid place of resort; a wretched dwelling place; a haunt; as, a den of vice. "Those squalid dens, which are the reproach of great capitals." Addison. 3. Any snug or close retreat where one goes to be alone. [Colloq.] 4. Etym: [AS. denu.] A narrow glen; a ravine; a dell. [Old Eng. & Scotch] Shak.
To live in, or as in, a den. The sluggish salvages that den below. G. Fletcher.
- Loud, confused, harsh noise; a loud, continuous, rattling or clanging sound; clamor; roar. Think you a little din can daunt mine ears Shak. He knew the battle's din afar. Sir W. Scott. The dust and din and steam of town. Tennyson.
1. To strike with confused or clanging sound; to stun with loud and continued noise; to harass with clamor; as, to din the ears with cries. 2. To utter with a din; to repeat noisily; to ding. This hath been often dinned in my ears. Swift. To din into, to fix in the mind of another by frequent and noisy repetitions. Sir W. Scott.
To sound with a din; a ding. The gay viol dinning in the dale. A. Seward.
- 1. Sir; Mr; Signior; -- a title in Spain, formerly given to noblemen and gentlemen only, but now common to all classes. Don is used in Italy, though not so much as in Spain France talks of Dom Calmet, England of Dom Calmet, England of Dan Lydgate. Oliphant. 2. A grand personage, or one making pretension to consequence; especially, the head of a college, or one of the fellows at the English universities. [Univ. Cant] "The great dons of wit." Dryden.
To put on; to dress in; to invest one's self with. Should I don this robe and trouble you. Shak. At night, or in the rain, He dons a surcoat which he doffs at morn. Emerson.
- A mound or small hill.
To cure, as codfish, in a particular manner, by laying them, after salting, in a pile in a dark place, covered with salt grass or some like substance.
To ask or beset, as a debtor, for payment; to urge importunately. Hath she sent so soon to dun Swift.
1. One who duns; a dunner. To be pulled by the sleeve by some rascally dun. Arbuthnot. 2. An urgent request or demand of payment; as, he sent his debtor a dun.
Of a dark color; of a color partaking of a brown and black; of a dull brown color; swarthy. Summer's dun cloud comes thundering up. Pierpont. Chill and dun Falls on the moor the brief November day. Keble. Dun crow (Zoöl.), the hooded crow; -- so called from its color; -- also called hoody, and hoddy. -- Dun diver (Zoöl.), the goosander or merganser.
- 1. An instrument used for producing artificial currents of air, by the wafting or revolving motion of a broad surface; as: (a) An instrument for cooling the person, made of feathers, paper, silk, etc., and often mounted on sticks all turning about the same pivot, so as when opened to radiate from the center and assume the figure of a section of a circle. (b) (Mach.) Any revolving vane or vanes used for producing currents of air, in winnowing grain, blowing a fire, ventilation, etc., or for checking rapid motion by the resistance of the air; a fan blower; a fan wheel. (c) An instrument for winnowing grain, by moving which the grain is tossed and agitated, and the chaff is separated and blown away. (d) Something in the form of a fan when spread, as a peacock's tail, a window, etc. (e) A small vane or sail, used to keep the large sails of a smock windmill always in the direction of the wind. Clean provender, which hath been winnowed with the shovel and with the fan. Is. xxx. 24. 2. That which produces effects analogous to those of a fan, as in exciting a flame, etc.; that which inflames, heightens, or strengthens; as, it served as a fan to the flame of his passion. 3. A quintain; -- from its form. [Obs.] Chaucer. Fan blower, a wheel with vanes fixed on a rotating shaft inclosed in a case or chamber, to create a blast of air (fan blast) for forge purposes, or a current for draft and ventilation; a fanner. -- Fan cricket (Zoöl.), a mole cricket. -- Fan light (Arch.), a window over a door; -- so called from the semicircular form and radiating sash bars of those windows which are set in the circular heads of arched doorways. -- Fan shell (Zoöl.), any shell of the family Pectinidæ. See Scallop, n., 1. -- Fan tracery (Arch.), the decorative tracery on the surface of fan vaulting. -- Fan vaulting (Arch.), an elaborate system of vaulting, in which the ribs diverge somewhat like the rays of a fan, as in Henry VII.'s chapel in Westminster Abbey. It is peculiar to English Gothic. -- Fan wheel, the wheel of a fan blower. -- Fan window. Same as Fan light (above).
1. To move as with a fan. The air . . . fanned with unnumbered plumes. Milton. 2. To cool and refresh, by moving the air with a fan; to blow the air on the face of with a fan. 3. To ventilate; to blow on; to affect by air put in motion. Calm as the breath which fans our eastern groves. Dryden. 4. To winnow; to separate chaff from, and drive it away by a current of air; as, to fan wheat. Jer. li. 2. 5. To excite or stir up to activity, as a fan axcites a flame; to stimulate; as, this conduct fanned the excitement of the populace. Fanning machine, or Fanning mill, a machine for separating seed from chaff, etc., by a blast of air; a fanner.
- A young pig, or a litter of pigs.
1. Distant in any direction; not near; remote; mutually separated by a wide space or extent. They said, . . . We be come from a far country. Josh. ix. 6. The nations far and near contend in choice. Dryden. 2. Remote from purpose; contrary to design or wishes; as, far be it from me to justify cruelty. 3. Remote in affection or obedience; at a distance, morally or spiritually; t enmity with; alienated. They that are far from thee ahsll perish. Ps. lxxiii. 27. 4. Widely different in nature or quality; opposite in character. He was far from ill looking, though he thought himself still farther. F. Anstey. 5. The more distant of two; as, the far side (called also off side) of a horse, that is, the right side, or the one opposite to the rider when he mounts. Note: The distinction between the adjectival and adverbial use of far is sometimes not easily discriminated. By far, by much; by a great difference. -- Far between, with a long distance (of space or time) between; at long intervals. "The examinations are few and far between." Farrar.
1. To a great extent or distance of space; widely; as, we are separated far from each other. 2. To a great distance in time from any point; remotely; as, he pushed his researches far into antiquity. 3. In great part; as, the day is far spent. 4. In a great proportion; by many degrees; very much; deeply; greatly. Who can find a virtuous woman for her price is far above rubies. Prov. xxxi. 10. As far as, to the extent, or degree, that. See As far as, under As. -- Far off. (a) At a great distance, absolutely or relatively. (b) Distant in sympathy or affection; alienated. "But now, in Christ Jesus, ye who some time were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ." Eph. ii. 13. -- Far other, different by a great degree; not the same; quite unlike. Pope. -- Far and near, at a distance and close by; throughout a whole region. -- Far and wide, distantly and broadly; comprehensively. "Far and wide his eye commands." Milton. -- From far, from a great distance; from a remote place. Note: Far often occurs in self-explaining compounds, such as far- extended, far-reaching, far-spread.
- Low land overflowed, or covered wholly or partially with water, but producing sedge, coarse grasses, or other aquatic plants; boggy land; moor; marsh. 'Mid reedy fens wide spread. Wordsworth. Note: Fen is used adjectively with the sense of belonging to, or of the nature of, a fen or fens. Fen boat, a boat of light draught used in marshes. -- Fen duck (Zoöl.), a wild duck inhabiting fens; the shoveler. [Prov. Eng.] -- Fen fowl (Zoöl.), any water fowl that frequent fens. -- Fen goose (Zoöl.), the graylag goose of Europe. [Prov. Eng.] -- Fen land, swamp land.
- Far. [Obs.] Chaucer.
- To carve or cut up, as a chub.
End; conclusion; object. [Obs.] "She knew eke the fin of his intent." Chaucer.
1. (Zoöl.) An organ of a fish, consisting of a membrane supported by rays, or little bony or cartilaginous ossicles, and serving to balance and propel it in the water. Note: Fishes move through the water chiefly by means of the caudal fin or tail, the principal office of the other fins being to balance or direct the body, though they are also, to a certain extent, employed in producing motion. 2. (Zoöl.) A membranous, finlike, swimming organ, as in pteropod and heteropod mollusks. 3. A finlike organ or attachment; a part of an object or product which protrudes like a fin, as: (a) The hand. [Slang] (b) (Com.) A blade of whalebone. [Eng.] McElrath. (c) (Mech.) A mark or ridge left on a casting at the junction of the parts of a mold. (d) (Mech.) The thin sheet of metal squeezed out between the collars of the rolls in the process of rolling. Raymond. (e) (Mech.) A feather; a spline. 4. A finlike appendage, as to submarine boats. Apidose fin. (Zoöl.) See under Adipose, a. -- Fin ray (Anat.), one of the hornlike, cartilaginous, or bony, dermal rods which form the skeleton of the fins of fishes. -- Fin whale (Zoöl.), a finback. -- Paired fins (Zoöl.), the pectoral and ventral fins, corresponding to the fore and hind legs of the higher animals. -- Unpaired, or Median, fins (Zoöl.), the dorsal, caudal, and anal fins.
- A genus (Abies) of coniferous trees, often of large size and elegant shape, some of them valued for their timber and others for their resin. The species are distinguished as the balsam fir, the silver fir, the red fir, etc. The Scoth fir is a Pinus. Note: Fir in the Bible means any one of several coniferous trees, including, cedar, cypress, and probably three species of pine. J. D. Hooker.
- A fool; an idiot. [Obs.] Chaucer.
- In the most general sense, indicating that in consideration of, in view of, or with reference to, which anything is done or takes place. 1. Indicating the antecedent cause or occasion of an action; the motive or inducement accompanying and prompting to an act or state; the reason of anything; that on account of which a thing is or is done. With fiery eyes sparkling for very wrath. Shak. How to choose dogs for scent or speed. Waller. Now, for so many glorious actions done, For peace at home, and for the public wealth, I mean to crown a bowl for Cæsar's health. Dryden. That which we, for our unworthiness, are afraid to crave, our prayer is, that God, for the worthiness of his Son, would, notwithstanding, vouchsafe to grant. Hooker. 2. Indicating the remoter and indirect object of an act; the end or final cause with reference to which anything is, acts, serves, or is done. The oak for nothing ill, The osier good for twigs, the poplar for the mill. Spenser. It was young counsel for the persons, and violent counsel for the matters. Bacon. Shall I think the worls was made for one, And men are born for kings, as beasts for men, Not for protection, but to be devoured Dryden. For he writes not for money, nor for praise. Denham. 3. Indicating that in favor of which, or in promoting which, anything is, or is done; hence, in behalf of; in favor of; on the side of; -- opposed to against. We can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth. 2 Cor. xiii. 8. It is for the general good of human society, and consequently of particular persons, to be true and just; and it is for men's health to be temperate. Tillotson. Aristotle is for poetical justice. Dennis. 4. Indicating that toward which the action of anything is directed, or the point toward which motion is made; We sailed from Peru for China and Japan. Bacon. 5. Indicating that on place of or instead of which anything acts or serves, or that to which a substitute, an equivalent, a compensation, or the like, is offered or made; instead of, or place of. And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. Ex. xxi. 23, 24. 6. Indicating that in the character of or as being which anything is regarded or treated; to be, or as being. We take a falling meteor for a star. Cowley. If a man can be fully assured of anything for a truth, without having examined, what is there that he may not embrace for truLocke. Most of our ingenious young men take up some cried-up English poet for their model. Dryden. But let her go for an ungrateful woman. Philips. 7. Indicating that instead of which something else controls in the performing of an action, or that in spite of which anything is done, occurs, or is; hence, equivalent to notwithstanding, in spite of; -- generally followed by all, aught, anything, etc. The writer will do what she please for all me. Spectator. God's desertion shall, for aught he knows, the next minute supervene. Dr. H. More. For anything that legally appears to the contrary, it may be a contrivance to fright us. Swift. 8. Indicating the space or time through which an action or state extends; hence, during; in or through the space or time of. For many miles about There 's scarce a bush. Shak. Since, hired for life, thy servile muse sing. prior. To guide the sun's bright chariot for a day. Garth. 9. Indicating that in prevention of which, or through fear of which, anything is done. [Obs.] We 'll have a bib, for spoiling of thy doublet. Beau. & Fl. For, or As for, so far as concerns; as regards; with reference to; -- used parenthetically or independently. See under As. As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord. Josh. xxiv. 15. For me, my stormy voyage at an end, I to the port of death securely tend. Dryden. -- For all that, notwithstanding; in spite of. -- For all the world, wholly; exactly. "Whose posy was, for all the world, like cutlers' poetry." Shak. -- For as much as, or Forasmuch as, in consideration that; seeing that; since. -- For by. See Forby, adv. -- For ever, eternally; at all times. See Forever. -- For me, or For all me, as far as regards me. -- For my life, or For the life of me, if my life depended on it. [Colloq.] T. Hook. -- For that, For the reason that, because; since. [Obs.] "For that I love your daughter." Shak. -- For thy, or Forthy Etym: [AS. for, for this; on this account. [Obs.] "Thomalin, have no care for thy." Spenser. -- For to, as sign of infinitive, in order to; to the end of. [Obs., except as sometimes heard in illiterate speech.] -- "What went ye out for to see" Luke vii. 25. See To, prep., 4. -- O for, would that I had; may there be granted; -- elliptically expressing desire or prayer. "O for a muse of fire." Shak. -- Were it not for, or If it were not for, leaving out of account; but for the presence or action of. "Moral consideration can no way move the sensible appetite, were it not for the will." Sir M. Hale.
1. Because; by reason that; for that; indicating, in Old English, the reason of anything. And for of long that way had walkéd none, The vault was hid with plants and bushes hoar. Fairfax. And Heaven defend your good souls, that you think I will your serious and great business scant, For she with me. Shak. 2. Since; because; introducing a reason of something before advanced, a cause, motive, explanation, justification, or the like, of an action related or a statement made. It is logically nearly equivalent to since, or because, but connects less closely, and is sometimes used as a very general introduction to something suggested by what has gone before. Give thanks unto the Lord; for he is good; for his mercy endureth forever. Ps. cxxxvi. 1. Heaven doth with us as we with torches do, Not light them for themselves; for if our virtues Did not go forth of us, 't were all alike As if we had them not. Shak. For because, because. [Obs.] "Nor for because they set less store by their own citizens." Robynson (More's Utopia). -- For why. (a) Why; for that reason; wherefore. [Obs.] (b) Because. [Obs.] See Forwhy. Syn. -- See Because.
One who takes, or that which is said on, the affrimative side; that which is said in favor of some one or something; -- the antithesis of against, and commonly used in connection with it. The fors and against. those in favor and those opposed; the pros and the cons; the advantages and the disadvantages. Jane Austen.
- Sport; merriment; frolicsome amusement. "Oddity, frolic, and fun." Goldsmith. To make fan of, to hold up to, or turn into, ridicule.
- 1. The short, fine, soft hair of certain animals, growing thick on the skin, and distinguished from the hair, which is longer and coarser. 2. The skins of certain wild animals with the fur; peltry; as, a cargo of furs. 3. Strips of dressed skins with fur, used on garments for warmth or for ornament. 4. pl. Articles of clothing made of fur; as, a set of furs for a lady (a collar, tippet, or cape, muff, etc.). Wrapped up in my furs. Lady M. W. Montagu. 5. Any coating considered as resembling fur; as: (a) A coat of morbid matter collected on the tongue in persons affected with fever. (b) The soft, downy covering on the skin of a peach. (c) The deposit formed on the interior of boilers and other vessels by hard water. 6. (Her.) One of several patterns or diapers used as tinctures. There are nine in all, or, according to some writers, only six. See Tincture.
Of or pertaining to furs; bearing or made of fur; as, a fur cap; the fur trade. Fur seal (Zoöl.) one of several species of seals of the genera Callorhinus and Arclocephalus, inhabiting the North Pacific and the Antarctic oceans. They have a coat of fine and soft fur which is highly prized. The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) breeds in vast numbers on the Prybilov Islands, off the coast of Alaska; -- called also sea bear.
1. To line, face, or cover with fur; as, furred robes. "You fur your gloves with reason." Shak. 2. To cover with morbid matter, as the tongue. 3. (Arch.) To nail small strips of board or larger scantling upon, in order to make a level surface for lathing or boarding, or to provide for a space or interval back of the plastered or boarded surface, as inside an outer wall, by way of protection against damp. Gwill.
- imp. of Get. [Obs.]
- Jet, the mineral. [Obs.] Chaucer.
1. Fashion; manner; custom. [Obs.] Chaucer. 2. Artifice; contrivance. [Obs.] Chaucer.
1. To procure; to obtain; to gain possession of; to acquire; to earn; to obtain as a price or reward; to come by; to win, by almost any means; as, to get favor by kindness; to get wealth by industry and economy; to get favor by kindness; to get wealth by industry and economy; to get land by purchase, etc. 2. Hence, with have and had, to come into or be in possession of; to have. Johnson. Thou hast got the face of man. Herbert. 3. To beget; to procreate; to generate. I had rather to adopt a child than get it. Shak. 4. To obtain mental possession of; to learn; to commit to memory; to memorize; as to get a lesson; also with out; as, to get out one's Greek lesson. It being harder with him to get one sermon by heart, than to pen twenty. Bp. Fell. 5. To prevail on; to induce; to persuade. Get him to say his prayers. Shak. 6. To procure to be, or to cause to be in any state or condition; -- with a following participle. Those things I bid you do; get them dispatched. Shak. 7. To betake; to remove; -- in a reflexive use. Get thee out from this land. Gen. xxxi. 13. He . . . got himself . . . to the strong town of Mega. Knolles. Note: Get, as a transitive verb, is combined with adverbs implying motion, to express the causing to, or the effecting in, the object of the verb, of the kind of motion indicated by the preposition; thus, to get in, to cause to enter, to bring under shelter; as, to get in the hay; to get out, to make come forth, to extract; to get off, to take off, to remove; to get together, to cause to come together, to collect. To get by heart, to commit to memory. -- To get the better of, To get the best of, to obtain an advantage over; to surpass; to subdue. -- To get up, to cause to be established or to exit; to prepare; to arrange; to construct; to invent; as, to get up a celebration, a machine, a book, an agitation. Syn. -- To obtain; gain; win; acquire. See Obtain.
1. To make acquisition; to gain; to profit; to receive accessions; to be increased. We mourn, France smiles; we lose, they daily get. Shak. 2. To arrive at, or bring one's self into, a state, condition, or position; to come to be; to become; -- with a following adjective or past participle belonging to the subject of the verb; as, to get sober; to get awake; to get beaten; to get elected. To get rid of fools and scoundrels. Pope. His chariot wheels get hot by driving fast. Coleridge. Note: It [get] gives to the English language a middle voice, or a power of verbal expression which is neither active nor passive. Thus we say to get acquitted, beaten, confused, dressed. Earle. Note: Get, as an intransitive verb, is used with a following preposition, or adverb of motion, to indicate, on the part of the subject of the act, movement or action of the kind signified by the preposition or adverb; or, in the general sense, to move, to stir, to make one's way, to advance, to arrive, etc.; as, to get away, to leave to escape; to disengage one's self from; to get down, to descend, esp. with effort, as from a literal or figurative elevation; to get along, to make progress; hence, to prosper, succeed, or fare; to get in, to enter; to get out, to extricate one's self, to escape; to get through, to traverse; also, to finish, to be done; to get to, to arrive at, to reach; to get off, to alight, to descend from, to dismount; also, to escape, to come off clear; to get together, to assemble, to convene. To get ahead, to advance; to prosper. -- To get along, to proceed; to advance; to prosper. -- To get a mile (or other distance), to pass over it in traveling. -- To get among, to go or come into the company of; to become one of a number. -- To get asleep, to fall asleep. -- To get astray, to wander out of the right way. -- To get at, to reach; to make way to. To get away with, to carry off; to capture; hence, to get the better of; to defeat. -- To get back, to arrive at the place from which one departed; to return. -- To get before, to arrive in front, or more forward. -- To get behind, to fall in the rear; to lag. -- To get between, to arrive between. -- To get beyond, to pass or go further than; to exceed; to surpass. "Three score and ten is the age of man, a few get beyond it." Thackeray. -- To get clear, to disengage one's self; to be released, as from confinement, obligation, or burden; also, to be freed from danger or embarrassment. -- To get drunk, to become intoxicated. -- To get forward, to proceed; to advance; also, to prosper; to advance in wealth. -- To get home, to arrive at one's dwelling, goal, or aim. -- To get into. (a) To enter, as, "she prepared to get into the coach." Dickens. (b) To pass into, or reach; as, " as, " a language has got into the inflated state." Keary. -- To get loose or free, to disengage one's self; to be released from confinement. -- To get near, to approach within a small distance. -- To get on, to proceed; to advance; to prosper. -- To get over. (a) To pass over, surmount, or overcome, as an obstacle or difficulty. (b) To recover from, as an injury, a calamity. -- To get through. (a) To pass through something. (b) To finish what one was doing. -- To get up. (a) To rise; to arise, as from a bed, chair, etc. (b) To ascend; to climb, as a hill, a tree, a flight of stairs, etc.
Offspring; progeny; as, the get of a stallion.
- See Geat.
- imp. & p. p. of Get. See Get.
- 1. A narrow passage of water; as, the Gut of Canso. 2. An intenstine; a bowel; the whole alimentary canal; the enteron; (pl.) bowels; entrails. 3. One of the prepared entrails of an animal, esp. of a sheep, used for various purposes. See Catgut. 4. The sac of silk taken from a silkworm (when ready to spin its cocoon), for the purpose of drawing it out into a thread. This, when dry, is exceedingly strong, and is used as the snood of a fish line. Blind gut. See CÆcum, n. (b).
1. To take out the bowels from; to eviscerate. 2. To plunder of contents; to destroy or remove the interior or contents of; as, a mob gutted the bouse. Tom Brown, of facetious memory, having gutted a proper name of its vowels, used it as freely as he pleased. Addison.
- 1. A notch; a cleft; a barb; a ragged or sharp protuberance; a denticulation. Arethuss arose . . . From rock and from jag. Shelley. Garments thus beset with long jags. Holland. 2. A part broken off; a fragment. Bp. Hacket. 3. (Bot.) A cleft or division. Jag bolt, a bolt with a nicked or barbed shank which resists retraction, as when leaded into stone.
To cut into notches or teeth like those of a saw; to notch. [Written also jagg. Jagging iron, a wheel with a zigzag or jagged edge for cutting cakes or pastry into ornamental figures.
A small load, as of hay or grain in the straw, or of ore. [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U.S.] [Written also jagg.] Forby.
To carry, as a load; as, to jag hay, etc. [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U.S.]
- See Jig, 6.
- 1. (Mus.) A light, brisk musical movement. Hot and hasty, like a Scotch jib. Shak. 3. A light, humorous piece of writing, esp. in rhyme; a farce in verse; a ballad. [Obs.] A jig shall be clapped at, and every rhyme Praised and applauded. Beau. & Fl. 4. A piece of sport; a trick; a prank. [Obs.] Is't not a fine jig, A precious cunning, in the late Protector Beau & Fl. 5. A trolling bait, consisting of a bright spoon and a hook attached. 6. (Mach.) (a) A small machine or handy tool; esp.: (Metal Working) A contrivance fastened to or inclosing a piece of work, and having hard steel surfaces to guide a tool, as a drill, or to form a shield or templet to work to, as in filing. (b) (Mining) An apparatus or a machine for jigging ore. Drill jig, a jig for guiding a drill. See Jig, 6 (a). -- Jig drilling, Jig filing (Metal Working), a process of drilling or filing in which the action of the tool is directed or limited by a jig. -- Jig saw, a sawing machine with a narrow, vertically reciprocating saw, used to cut curved and irregular lines, or ornamental patterns in openwork, a scroll saw; -- called also gig saw.
1. To sing to the tune of a jig. Jig off a tune at the tongue's end. Shak. 2. To trick or cheat; to cajole; to delude. Ford. 3. (Mining) To sort or separate, as ore in a jigger or sieve. See Jigging, n. 4. (Metal Working) To cut or form, as a piece of metal, in a jigging machine.
To dance a jig; to skip about. You jig, you amble, and you lisp. Shak.
- 1. To push or shake with the elbow or hand; to jostle; esp., to push or touch, in order to give notice, to excite one's attention, or to warn. Now leaps he upright, jogs me, and cries: Do you see Yonder well- favored youth Donne. Sudden I jogged Ulysses, who was laid Fast by my side. Pope. 2. To suggest to; to notify; to remind; to call the attention of; as, to jog the memory. 3. To cause to jog; to drive at a jog, as a horse. See Jog, v. i.
To move by jogs or small shocks, like those of a slow trot; to move slowly, leisurely, or monotonously; -- usually with on, sometimes with over. Jog on, jog on, the footpath way. Shak. So hung his destiny, never to rot, While he might still jog on and keep his trot. Milton . The good old ways our sires jogged safely over. R. Browning.
1. A slight shake; a shake or push intended to give notice or awaken attention; a push; a jolt. To give them by turns an invisible jog. Swift. 2. A rub; a slight stop; an obstruction; hence, an irregularity in motion of from; a hitch; a break in the direction of a line or the surface of a plane. Glanvill. Jog trot, a slow, regular, jolting gait; hence, a routine habit or method, persistently adhered to. T. Hook.
- 1. A vessel, usually of coarse earthenware, with a swelling belly and narrow mouth, and having a handle on one side. 2. A pitcher; a ewer. [Eng.] 3. A prison; a jail; a lockup. [Slang] Gay.
1. To seethe or stew, as in a jug or jar placed in boiling water; as, to jug a hare. 2. To commit to jail; to imprison. [Slang]
1. To utter a sound resembling this word, as certain birds do, especially the nightingale. 2. To nestle or collect together in a covey; -- said of quails and partridges.
- 1. Coming tardily after or behind; slow; tardy. [Obs.] Came too lag to see him buried. Shak. 2. Last; long-delayed; -- obsolete, except in the phrase lag end. "The lag end of my life." Shak. 3. Last made; hence, made of refuse; inferior. [Obs.] "Lag souls." Dryden.
1. One who lags; that which comes in last. [Obs.] "The lag of all the flock." Pope. 2. The fag-end; the rump; hence, the lowest class. The common lag of people. Shak. 3. The amount of retardation of anything, as of a valve in a steam engine, in opening or closing. 4. A stave of a cask, drum, etc.; especially (Mach.), one of the narrow boards or staves forming the covering of a cylindrical object, as a boiler, or the cylinder of a carding machine or a steam engine. 5. (Zoöl.) See Graylag. Lag of the tide, the interval by which the time of high water falls behind the mean time, in the first and third quarters of the moon; -- opposed to priming of the tide, or the acceleration of the time of high water, in the second and fourth quarters; depending on the relative positions of the sun and moon. -- Lag screw, an iron bolt with a square head, a sharp-edged thread, and a sharp point, adapted for screwing into wood; a screw for fastening lags.
To walk or more slowly; to stay or fall behind; to linger or loiter. "I shall not lag behind." Milton. Syn. -- To loiter; linger; saunter; delay; be tardy.
1. To cause to lag; to slacken. [Obs.] "To lag his flight." Heywood. 2. (Mach.) To cover, as the cylinder of a steam engine, with lags. See Lag, n., 4.
One transported for a crime. [Slang, Eng.]
To transport for crime. [Slang, Eng.] She lags us if we poach. De Quincey.
- 1. A limb or member of an animal used for supporting the body, and in running, climbing, and swimming; esp., that part of the limb between the knee and foot. 2. That which resembles a leg in form or use; especially, any long and slender support on which any object rests; as, the leg of a table; the leg of pair of compasses or dividers. 3. The part of any article of clothing which covers the leg; as, the leg of a stocking or of a pair of trousers. 4. A bow, esp. in the phrase to make a leg; probably from drawing the leg backward in bowing. [Obs.] He that will give a cap and make a leg in thanks for a favor he never received. Fuller. 5. A disreputable sporting character; a blackleg. [Slang, Eng.] 6. (Naut.) The course and distance made by a vessel on one tack or between tacks. 7. (Steam Boiler) An extension of the boiler downward, in the form of a narrow space between vertical plates, sometimes nearly surrounding the furnace and ash pit, and serving to support the boiler; -- called also water leg. 8. (Grain Elevator) The case containing the lower part of the belt which carries the buckets. 9. (Cricket) A fielder whose position is on the outside, a little in rear of the batter. A good leg (Naut.), a course sailed on a tack which is near the desired course. -- Leg bail, escape from custody by flight. [Slang] -- Legs of an hyperbola (or other curve) (Geom.), the branches of the curve which extend outward indefinitely. -- Legs of a triangle, the sides of a triangle; -- a name seldom used unless one of the sides is first distinguished by some appropriate term; as, the hypothenuse and two legs of a right-angled triangle. On one's legs, standing to speak. -- One's last legs. See under Last. -- To have legs (Naut.), to have speed. -- To stand on one's own legs, to support one's self; to be independent.
To use as a leg, with it as object: (a) To bow. [Obs.] (b) To run [Low]
- To recline; to lie still. [Obs. or Scot.] Chaucer. Spenser.
- A Hebrew measure of liquids, containing 2.37 gills. W. H. Ward.
1. A bulky piece of wood which has not been shaped by hewing or sawing. 2. Etym: [Prob. the same word as in sense 1; cf. LG. log, lock, Dan. log, Sw. logg.] (Naut.) An apparatus for measuring the rate of a ship's motion through the water. Note: The common log consists of the log-chip, or logship, often exclusively called the log, and the log line, the former being commonly a thin wooden quadrant of five or six inches radius, loaded with lead on the arc to make it float with the point up. It is attached to the log line by cords from each corner. This line is divided into equal spaces, called knots, each bearing the same proportion to a mile that half a minute does to an hour. The line is wound on a reel which is so held as to let it run off freely. When the log is thrown, the log-chip is kept by the water from being drawn forward, and the speed of the ship is shown by the number of knots run out in half a minute. There are improved logs, consisting of a piece of mechanism which, being towed astern, shows the distance actually gone through by the ship, by means of the revolutions of a fly, which are registered on a dial plate. 3. Hence: The record of the rate of ship's speed or of her daily progress; also, the full nautical record of a ship's cruise or voyage; a log slate; a log book. 4. A record and tabulated statement of the work done by an engine, as of a steamship, of the coal consumed, and of other items relating to the performance of machinery during a given time. 5. (Mining) A weight or block near the free end of a hoisting rope to prevent it from being drawn through the sheave. Log board (Naut.), a board consisting of two parts shutting together like a book, with columns in which are entered the direction of the wind, course of the ship, etc., during each hour of the day and night. These entries are transferred to the log book. A folding slate is now used instead. -- Log book, or Logbook (Naut.), a book in which is entered the daily progress of a ship at sea, as indicated by the log, with notes on the weather and incidents of the voyage; the contents of the log board. Log cabin, Log house, a cabin or house made of logs. -- Log canoe, a canoe made by shaping and hollowing out a single log. -- Log glass (Naut.), a small sandglass used to time the running out of the log line. -- Log line (Naut.), a line or cord about a hundred and fifty fathoms long, fastened to the log-chip. See Note under 2d Log, n., 2. -- Log perch (Zoöl.), an ethiostomoid fish, or darter (Percina caprodes); -- called also hogfish and rockfish. -- Log reel (Naut.), the reel on which the log line is wound. -- Log slate. (Naut.) See Log board (above). -- Rough log (Naut.), a first draught of a record of the cruise or voyage. -- Smooth log (Naut.), a clean copy of the rough log. In the case of naval vessels this copy is forwarded to the proper officer of the government. -- To heave the log (Naut.), to cast the log-chip into the water; also, the whole process of ascertaining a vessel's speed by the log.
, To enter in a ship's log book; as, to log the miles run. J. F. Cooper.
1. To engage in the business of cutting or transporting logs for timber; to get out logs. [U.S.] 2. To move to and fro; to rock. [Obs.]
- 1. The ear, or its lobe. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.] 2. That which projects like an ear, esp. that by which anything is supported, carried, or grasped, or to which a support is fastened; an ear; as, the lugs of a kettle; the lugs of a founder's flask; the lug (handle) of a jug. 3. (Mach.) A projecting piece to which anything, as a rod, is attached, or against which anything, as a wedge or key, bears, or through which a bolt passes, etc. 4. (Harness) The leather loop or ear by which a shaft is held up. 5. (Zoöl.) The lugworm. Lug bolt (Mach.), a bolt terminating in a long, flat extension which takes the place of a head; a strap bolt.
To pull with force; to haul; to drag along; to carry with difficulty, as something heavy or cumbersome. Dryden. They must divide the image among them, and so lug off every one his share. Collier.
To move slowly and heavily.
1. The act of lugging; as, a hard lug; that which is lugged; as, the pack is a heavy lug.[Colloq.] 2. Anything which moves slowly. [Obs.] Ascham.
1. A rod or pole. [Prov. Eng.] Wright. 2. A measure of length, being 16 [Obs.] " Eight lugs of ground." Spenser. Chimney lug, or Lug pole, a pole on which a kettle is hung over the fire, either in a chimney or in the open air. [Local, U.S.] Whittier.
- 1. The summit of an eminence. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. 2. (Firearms) The cock of a gunlock. Knight. 3. (Locksmithing) The keeper, or box into which the lock is shot. Knight.
To catch or seize suddenly or unexpectedly. [Colloq.] Smollett.
- Not. [Obs.] Chaucer.
Not at; nor at. [Obs.] haucer.
- The nose; the snout; the mouth; the beak of a bird; a nib, as of a pen. [Also written nib.] Shak.
- 1. A fabric of twine, thread, or the like, wrought or woven into meshes, and used for catching fish, birds, butterflies, etc. 2. Anything designed or fitted to entrap or catch; a snare; any device for catching and holding. A man that flattereth his neighbor spreadeth a net for his feet. Prov. xxix. 5. In the church's net there are fishes good or bad. Jer. Taylor. 3. Anything wrought or woven in meshes; as, a net for the hair; a mosquito net; a tennis net. 4. (Geom.) A figure made up of a large number of straight lines or curves, which are connected at certain points and related to each other by some specified law.
1. To make into a net; to make n the style of network; as, to net silk. 2. To take in a net; to capture by stratagem or wile. And now I am here, netted and in the toils. Sir W. Scott. 3. To inclose or cover with a net; as, to net a tree.
To form network or netting; to knit.
1. Without spot; pure; shining. [Obs.] Her breast all naked as net ivory. Spenser. 2. Free from extraneous substances; pure; unadulterated; neat; as, net wine, etc. [R.] 3. Not including superfluous, incidental, or foreign matter, as boxes, coverings, wraps, etc.; free from charges, deductions, etc; as, net profit; net income; net weight, etc. [Less properly written nett.] Net tonnage (Naut.), the tonnage of a vessel after a deduction from the gross tonnage has been made, to allow space for crew, machinery, etc.
To produce or gain as clear profit; as, he netted a thousand dollars by the operation.
- 1. A small and pointed thing or part; a point; a prong. "The little nib or fructifying principle." Sir T. Browne. 2. (Zoöl.) The bill or beak of a bird; the neb. 3. The points of a pen; also, the pointed part of a pen; a short pen adapted for insertion in a holder. 4. One of the handles which project from a scythe snath; also, [Prov. Eng.], the shaft of a wagon.
To furnish with a nib; to point; to mend the point of; as, to nib a pen.
- The egg of a louse or other small insect. Nit grass (Bot.), a pretty annual European grass (Gastridium lendigerum), with small spikelets somewhat resembling a nit. It is also found in California and Chili.
- The head. [Low]
A person in a superior position in life; a nobleman. [Slang]
- Wot not; know not; knows not. [Obs.] Chaucer.
Shorn; shaven. [Obs.] See Nott.
A word used to express negation, prohibition, denial, or refusal. Not one word spake he more than was need. Chaucer. Thou shalt not steal. Ex. xx. 15. Thine eyes are upon me, and I am not. Job vii. 8. The question is, may I do it, or may I not do it Bp. Sanderson. Not . . . but, or Not but, only. [Obs. or Colloq.] Chaucer.
- To push; to nudge; also, to beckon. [Prov. Eng.]
A jag, or snag; a knob; a protuberance; also, the point or gist, as of a story. [Colloq.]
- 1. (Bot.) The fruit of certain trees and shrubs (as of the almond, walnut, hickory, beech, filbert, etc.), consisting of a hard and indehiscent shell inclosing a kernel. 2. A perforated block (usually a small piece of metal), provided with an internal or female screw thread, used on a bolt, or screw, for tightening or holding something, or for transmitting motion. See Illust. of lst Bolt. 3. The tumbler of a gunlock. Knight. 4. (Naut.) A projection on each side of the shank of an anchor, to secure the stock in place. Check nut, Jam nut, Lock nut, a nut which is screwed up tightly against another nut on the same bolt or screw, in order to prevent accidental unscrewing of the first nut. -- Nut buoy. See under Buoy. -- Nut coal, screened coal of a size smaller than stove coal and larger than pea coal; -- called also chestnut coal. -- Nut crab (Zoöl.), any leucosoid crab of the genus Ebalia as, Ebalia tuberosa of Europe. -- Nut grass (Bot.), a plant of the Sedge family (Cyperus rotundus, var. Hydra), which has slender rootstocks bearing small, nutlike tubers, by which the plant multiplies exceedingly, especially in cotton fields. -- Nut lock, a device, as a metal plate bent up at the corners, to prevent a nut from becoming unscrewed, as by jarring. -- Nut pine. (Bot.) See under Pine. -- Nut rush (Bot.), a genus of cyperaceous plants (Scleria) having a hard bony achene. Several species are found in the United States and many more in tropical regions. -- Nut tree, a tree that bears nuts. -- Nut weevil (Zoöl.), any species of weevils of the genus Balaninus and other allied genera, which in the larval state live in nuts.
To gather nuts.
- To strike gently with the fingers or hand; to stroke lightly; to tap; as, to pat a dog. Gay pats my shoulder, and you vanish quite. Pope.
1. A light, quik blow or stroke with the fingers or hand; a tap. 2. A small mass, as of butter, shaped by pats. It looked like a tessellated work of pats of butter. Dickens.
Exactly suitable; fit; convenient; timely. "Pat allusion." Barrow.
In a pat manner. I foresaw then 't would come in pat hereafter. Sterne.
- 1. A cade lamb; a lamb brought up by hand. 2. Any person or animal especially cherished and indulged; a fondling; a darling; often, a favorite child. The love of cronies, pets, and favorites. Tatler. 3. Etym: [Prob. fr. Pet a fondling, hence, the behavior or humor of a spoiled child.] A slight fit of peevishness or fretfulness. "In a pet she started up." Tennyson.
Petted; indulged; admired; cherished; as, a pet child; a pet lamb; a pet theory. Some young lady's pet curate. F. Harrison. Pet cock. Etym: [Perh. for petty cock.] (Mach.) A little faucet in a water pipe or pump, to let air out, or at the end of a steam cylinder, to drain it.
To treat as a pet; to fondle; to indulge; as, she was petted and spoiled.
To be a pet. Feltham.
- 1. A large cavity or hole in the ground, either natural or artificial; a cavity in the surface of a body; an indentation; specifically: (a) The shaft of a coal mine; a coal pit. (b) A large hole in the ground from which material is dug or quarried; as, a stone pit; a gravel pit; or in which material is made by burning; as, a lime pit; a charcoal pit. (c) A vat sunk in the ground; as, a tan pit. Tumble me into some loathsome pit. Shak. 2. Any abyss; especially, the grave, or hades. Back to the infernal pit I drag thee chained. Milton. He keepth back his soul from the pit. Job xxxiii. 18. 3. A covered deep hole for entrapping wild beasts; a pitfall; hence, a trap; a snare. Also used figuratively. The anointed of the Lord was taken in their pits. Lam. iv. 20. 4. A depression or hollow in the surface of the human body; as: (a) The hollow place under the shoulder or arm; the axilla, or armpit. (b) See Pit of the stomach (below). (c) The indentation or mark left by a pustule, as in smallpox. 5. Formerly, that part of a theater, on the floor of the house, below the level of the stage and behind the orchestra; now, in England, commonly the part behind the stalls; in the United States, the parquet; also, the occupants of such a part of a theater. 6. An inclosed area into which gamecocks, dogs, and other animals are brought to fight, or where dogs are trained to kill rats. "As fiercely as two gamecocks in the pit." Locke. 7. Etym: [Cf. D. pit, akin to E. pith.] (Bot.) (a) The endocarp of a drupe, and its contained seed or seeds; a stone; as, a peach pit; a cherry pit, etc. (b) A depression or thin spot in the wall of a duct. Cold pit (Hort.), an excavation in the earth, lined with masonry or boards, and covered with glass, but not artificially heated, -- used in winter for the storing and protection of half-hardly plants, and sometimes in the spring as a forcing bed. -- Pit coal, coal dug from the earth; mineral coal. -- Pit frame, the framework over the shaft of a coal mine. -- Pit head, the surface of the ground at the mouth of a pit or mine. -- Pit kiln, an oven for coking coal. -- Pit martin (Zoöl.), the bank swallow. [Prov. Eng.] -- Pit of the stomach (Anat.), the depression on the middle line of the epigastric region of the abdomen at the lower end of the sternum; the infrasternal depression. -- Pit saw (Mech.), a saw worked by two men, one of whom stands on the log and the other beneath it. The place of the latter is often in a pit, whence the name. -- Pit viper (Zoöl.), any viperine snake having a deep pit on each side of the snout. The rattlesnake and copperhead are examples. -- Working pit (Min.), a shaft in which the ore is hoisted and the workmen carried; -- in distinction from a shaft used for the pumps.
1. To place or put into a pit or hole. They lived like beasts, and were pitted like beasts, tumbled into the grave. T. Grander. 2. To mark with little hollows, as by various pustules; as, a face pitted by smallpox. 3. To introduce as an antagonist; to set forward for or in a contest; as, to pit one dog against another.
- 1. A metallic or earthen vessel, appropriated to any of a great variety of uses, as for boiling meat or vegetables, for holding liquids, for plants, etc.; as, a quart pot; a flower pot; a bean pot. 2. An earthen or pewter cup for liquors; a mug. 3. The quantity contained in a pot; a potful; as, a pot of ale. "Give her a pot and a cake." De Foe. 4. A metal or earthenware extension of a flue above the top of a chimney; a chimney pot. 5. A crucible; as, a graphite pot; a melting pot. 6. A wicker vessel for catching fish, eels, etc. 7. A perforated cask for draining sugar. Knight. 8. A size of paper. See Pott. Jack pot. See under 2d Jack. -- Pot cheese, cottage cheese. See under Cottage. -- Pot companion, a companion in drinking. -- Pot hanger, a pothook. -- Pot herb, any plant, the leaves or stems of which are boiled for food, as spinach, lamb's-quarters, purslane, and many others. -- Pot hunter, one who kills anything and everything that will help to fill has bag; also, a hunter who shoots game for the table or for the market. -- Pot metal. (a) The metal from which iron pots are made, different from common pig iron. (b) An alloy of copper with lead used for making large vessels for various purposes in the arts. Ure. (c) A kind of stained glass, the colors of which are incorporated with the melted glass in the pot. Knight. -- Pot plant (Bot.), either of the trees which bear the monkey-pot. -- Pot wheel (Hydraul.), a noria. -- To go to pot, to go to destruction; to come to an end of usefulness; to become refuse. [Colloq.] Dryden. J. G. Saxe.
To place or inclose in pots; as: (a) To preserve seasoned in pots. "Potted fowl and fish." Dryden. (b) To set out or cover in pots; as, potted plants or bulbs. (c) To drain; as, to pot sugar, by taking it from the cooler, and placing it in hogsheads, etc., having perforated heads, through which the molasses drains off. B. Edwards. (d) (Billiards) To pocket.
To tipple; to drink. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] It is less labor to plow than to pot it. Feltham.
- A pit. [Obs.] Chaucer.
3d pers. sing. pres. of Put, contracted from putteth. Chaucer.
A rustic; a clown; an awkward or uncouth person. Queer country puts extol Queen Bess's reign. Bramston. What droll puts the citizens seem in it all. F. Harrison.
1. To move in any direction; to impel; to thrust; to push; -- nearly obsolete, except with adverbs, as with by (to put by = to thrust aside; to divert); or with forth (to put forth = to thrust out). His chief designs are . . . to put thee by from thy spiritual employment. Jer. Taylor. 2. To bring to a position or place; to place; to lay; to set; figuratively, to cause to be or exist in a specified relation, condition, or the like; to bring to a stated mental or moral condition; as, to put one in fear; to put a theory in practice; to put an enemy to fight. This present dignity, In which that I have put you. Chaucer. I will put enmity between thee and the woman. Gen. iii. 15. He put no trust in his servants. Job iv. 18. When God into the hands of their deliverer Puts invincible might. Milton. In the mean time other measures were put in operation. Sparks. 3. To attach or attribute; to assign; as, to put a wrong construction on an act or expression. 4. To lay down; to give up; to surrender. [Obs.] No man hath more love than this, that a man put his life for his friends. Wyclif (John xv. 13). 5. To set before one for judgment, acceptance, or rejection; to bring to the attention; to offer; to state; to express; figuratively, to assume; to suppose; -- formerly sometimes followed by that introducing a proposition; as, to put a question; to put a case. Let us now put that ye have leave. Chaucer. Put the perception and you put the mind. Berkeley. These verses, originally Greek, were put in Latin. Milton. All this is ingeniously and ably put. Hare. 6. To incite; to entice; to urge; to constrain; to oblige. These wretches put us upon all mischief. Swift. Put me not use the carnal weapon in my own defense. Sir W. Scott. Thank him who puts me, loath, to this revenge. Milton. 7. To throw or cast with a pushing motion "overhand," the hand being raised from the shoulder; a practice in athletics; as, to put the shot or weight. 8. (Mining) To convey coal in the mine, as from the working to the tramway. Raymond. Put case, formerly, an elliptical expression for, put or suppose the case to be. Put case that the soul after departure from the body may live. Bp. Hall. -- To put about (Naut.), to turn, or change the course of, as a ship. -- To put away. (a) To renounce; to discard; to expel. (b) To divorce. -- To put back. (a) To push or thrust backwards; hence, to hinder; to delay. (b) To refuse; to deny. Coming from thee, I could not put him back. Shak. (c) To set, as the hands of a clock, to an earlier hour. (d) To restore to the original place; to replace. -- To put by. (a) To turn, set, or thrust, aside. "Smiling put the question by." Tennyson. (b) To lay aside; to keep; to sore up; as, to put by money. -- To put down. (a) To lay down; to deposit; to set down. (b) To lower; to diminish; as, to put down prices. (c) To deprive of position or power; to put a stop to; to suppress; to abolish; to confute; as, to put down rebellion of traitors. Mark, how a plain tale shall put you down. Shak. Sugar hath put down the use of honey. Bacon. (d) To subscribe; as, to put down one's name. -- To put forth. (a) To thrust out; to extend, as the hand; to cause to come or push out; as, a tree puts forth leaves. (b) To make manifest; to develop; also, to bring into action; to exert; as, to put forth strength. (c) To propose, as a question, a riddle, and the like. (d) To publish, as a book. -- To put forward. (a) To advance to a position of prominence responsibility; to promote. (b) To cause to make progress; to aid. (c) To set, as the hands of a clock, to a later hour. -- To put in. (a) To introduce among others; to insert; sometimes, to introduce with difficulty; as, to put in a word while others are discoursing. (b) (Naut.) To conduct into a harbor, as a ship. (c) (Law) To place in due form before a court; to place among the records of a court. Burrill. (d) (Med.) To restore, as a dislocated part, to its place. -- To put off. (a) To lay aside; to discard; as, to put off a robe; to put off mortality. "Put off thy shoes from off thy feet." Ex. iii. 5. (b) To turn aside; to elude; to disappoint; to frustrate; to baffle. I hoped for a demonstration, but Themistius hoped to put me off with an harangue. Boyle. We might put him off with this answer. Bentley. (c) To delay; to defer; to postpone; as, to put off repentance. (d) To get rid of; to dispose of; especially, to pass fraudulently; as, to put off a counterfeit note, or an ingenious theory. (e) To push from land; as, to put off a boat. -- To put on or upon. (a) To invest one's self with, as clothes; to assume. "Mercury . . . put on the shape of a man." L'Estrange. (b) To impute (something) to; to charge upon; as, to put blame on or upon another. (c) To advance; to promote. [Obs.] "This came handsomely to put on the peace." Bacon. (d) To impose; to inflict. "That which thou puttest on me, will I bear." 2 Kings xviii. 14. (e) To apply; as, to put on workmen; to put on steam. (f) To deceive; to trick. "The stork found he was put upon." L'Estrange. (g) To place upon, as a means or condition; as, he put him upon bread and water. "This caution will put them upon considering." Locke. (h) (Law) To rest upon; to submit to; as, a defendant puts himself on or upon the country. Burrill. -- To put out. (a) To eject; as, to put out and intruder. (b) To put forth; to shoot, as a bud, or sprout. (c) To extinguish; as, to put out a candle, light, or fire. (d) To place at interest; to loan; as, to put out funds. (e) To provoke, as by insult; to displease; to vex; as, he was put out by my reply. [Colloq.] (f) To protrude; to stretch forth; as, to put out the hand. (g) To publish; to make public; as, to put out a pamphlet. (h) To confuse; to disconcert; to interrupt; as, to put one out in reading or speaking. (i) (Law) To open; as, to put out lights, that is, to open or cut windows. Burrill. (j) (Med.) To place out of joint; to dislocate; as, to put out the ankle. (k) To cause to cease playing, or to prevent from playing longer in a certain inning, as in base ball. -- To put over. (a) To place (some one) in authority over; as, to put a general over a division of an army. (b) To refer. For the certain knowledge of that knowledge of that truthput you o'er to heaven and to my mother. Shak. (c) To defer; to postpone; as, the court put over the cause to the next term. (d) To transfer (a person or thing) across; as, to put one over the river. -- To put the hand to or unto. (a) To take hold of, as of an instrument of labor; as, to put the hand to the plow; hence, to engage in (any task or affair); as, to put one's hand to the work. (b) To take or seize, as in theft. "He hath not put his hand unto his neighbor's goods." Ex. xxii. 11. -- To put through, to cause to go through all conditions or stages of a progress; hence, to push to completion; to accomplish; as, he put through a measure of legislation; he put through a railroad enterprise. [U.S.] -- To put to. (a) To add; to unite; as, to put one sum to another. (b) To refer to; to expose; as, to put the safety of the state to hazard. "That dares not put it to the touch." Montrose. (c) To attach (something) to; to harness beasts to. Dickens. -- To put to a stand, to stop; to arrest by obstacles or difficulties. -- To put to bed. (a) To undress and place in bed, as a child. (b) To deliver in, or to make ready for, childbirth. -- To put to death, to kill. -- To put together, to attach; to aggregate; to unite in one. -- To put this and that (or two and two) together, to draw an inference; to form a correct conclusion. -- To put to it, to distress; to press hard; to perplex; to give difficulty to. "O gentle lady, do not put me to 't." Shak. -- To put to rights, to arrange in proper order; to settle or compose rightly. -- To put to the sword, to kill with the sword; to slay. -- To put to trial, or on trial, to bring to a test; to try. -- To put trust in, to confide in; to repose confidence in. -- To put up. (a) To pass unavenged; to overlook; not to punish or resent; to put up with; as, to put up indignities. [Obs.] "Such national injuries are not to be put up." Addison. (b) To send forth or upward; as, to put up goods for sale. (d) To start from a cover, as game. "She has been frightened; she has been put up." C. Kingsley. (e) To hoard. "Himself never put up any of the rent." Spelman. (f) To lay side or preserve; to pack away; to store; to pickle; as, to put up pork, beef, or fish. (g) To place out of sight, or away; to put in its proper place; as, put up that letter. Shak. (h) To incite; to instigate; -- followed by to; as, he put the lad up to mischief. (i) To raise; to erect; to build; as, to put up a tent, or a house. (j) To lodge; to entertain; as, to put up travelers. -- To put up a job, to arrange a plot. [Slang] Syn. -- To place; set; lay; cause; produce; propose; state. -- Put, Lay, Place, Set. These words agree in the idea of fixing the position of some object, and are often used interchangeably. To put is the least definite, denoting merely to move to a place. To place has more particular reference to the precise location, as to put with care in a certain or proper place. To set or to lay may be used when there is special reference to the position of the object.
1. To go or move; as, when the air first puts up. [Obs.] Bacon. 2. To steer; to direct one's course; to go. His fury thus appeased, he puts to land. Dryden. 3. To play a card or a hand in the game called put. To put about (Naut.), to change direction; to tack. -- To put back (Naut.), to turn back; to return. "The French . . . had put back to Toulon." Southey. -- To put forth. (a) To shoot, bud, or germinate. "Take earth from under walls where nettles put forth." Bacon. (b) To leave a port or haven, as a ship. Shak. -- To put in (Naut.), to enter a harbor; to sail into port. -- To put in for. (a) To make a request or claim; as, to put in for a share of profits. (b) To go into covert; -- said of a bird escaping from a hawk. (c) To offer one's self; to stand as a candidate for. Locke. -- To put off, to go away; to depart; esp., to leave land, as a ship; to move from the shore. -- To put on, to hasten motion; to drive vehemently. -- To put over (Naut.), to sail over or across. -- To put to sea (Naut.), to set sail; to begin a voyage; to advance into the ocean. -- To put up. (a) To take lodgings; to lodge. (b) To offer one's self as a candidate. L'Estrange. -- To put up to, to advance to. [Obs.] "With this he put up to my lord." Swift. -- To put up with. (a) To overlook, or suffer without recompense, punishment, or resentment; as, to put up with an injury or affront. (b) To take without opposition or expressed dissatisfaction; to endure; as, to put up with bad fare.
1. The act of putting; an action; a movement; a thrust; a push; as, the put of a ball. "A forced put." L'Estrange. 2. A certain game at cards. Young. 3. A privilege which one party buys of another to "put" (deliver) to him a certain amount of stock, grain, etc., at a certain price and date. [Brokers' Cant] A put and a call may be combined in one instrument, the holder of which may either buy or sell as he chooses at the fixed price. Johnson's Cyc.
A prostitute. [Obs.]
- imp. & p. p. of Read, Rede. Spenser.
- 1. (Zoöl.) One of the several species of small rodents of the genus Mus and allied genera, larger than mice, that infest houses, stores, and ships, especially the Norway, or brown, rat (M. Alexandrinus). These were introduced into Anerica from the Old World. 2. A round and tapering mass of hair, or similar material, used by women to support the puffs and rolls of their natural hair. [Local, U.S.] 3. One who deserts his party or associates; hence, in the trades, one who works for lower wages than those prescribed by a trades union. [Cant] Note: "It so chanced that, not long after the accession of the house of Hanover, some of the brown, that is the German or Norway, rats, were first brought over to this country (in some timber as is said); and being much stronger than the black, or, till then, the common, rats, they in many places quite extirpated the latter. The word (both the noun and the verb to rat) was first, as we have seen, leveled at the converts to the government of George the First, but has by degrees obtained a wide meaning, and come to be applied to any sudden and mercenary change in politics." Lord Mahon. Bamboo rat (Zoöl.), any Indian rodent of the genus Rhizomys. -- Beaver rat, Coast rat. (Zoöl.) See under Beaver and Coast. -- Blind rat (Zoöl.), the mole rat. -- Cotton rat (Zoöl.), a long-haired rat (Sigmodon hispidus), native of the Southern United States and Mexico. It makes its nest of cotton and is often injurious to the crop. -- Ground rat. See Ground Pig, under Ground. -- Hedgehog rat. See under Hedgehog. -- Kangaroo rat (Zoöl.), the potoroo. -- Norway rat (Zoöl.), the common brown rat. See Rat. -- Pouched rat. (Zoöl.) (a) See Pocket Gopher, under Pocket. (b) Any African rodent of the genus Cricetomys. Rat Indians (Ethnol.), a tribe of Indians dwelling near Fort Ukon, Alaska. They belong to Athabascan stock. -- Rat mole. (Zoöl.) See Mole rat, under Mole. -- Rat pit, an inclosed space into which rats are put to be killed by a dog for sport. -- Rat snake (Zoöl.), a large colubrine snake (Ptyas mucosus) very common in India and Ceylon. It enters dwellings, and destroys rats, chickens, etc. -- Spiny rat (Zoöl.), any South America rodent of the genus Echinomys. -- To smell a rat. See under Smell. -- Wood rat (Zoöl.), any American rat of the genus Neotoma, especially N. Floridana, common in the Southern United States. Its feet and belly are white.
1. In English politics, to desert one's party from interested motives; to forsake one's associates for one's own advantage; in the trades, to work for less wages, or on other conditions, than those established by a trades union. Coleridge . . . incurred the reproach of having ratted, solely by his inability to follow the friends of his early days. De Quincey. 2. To catch or kill rats.
- . imp. & p. p. of Read. Spenser.
To put on order; to make tidy; also, to free from entanglement or embarrassement; -- generally with up; as, to red up a house. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]
Of the color of blood, or of a tint resembling that color; of the hue of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar spectrum, which is furthest from the violet part. "Fresh flowers, white and reede." Chaucer. Your color, I warrant you, is as red as any rose. Shak. Note: Red is a general term, including many different shades or hues, as scarlet, crimson, vermilion, orange red, and the like. Note: Red is often used in the formation of self-explaining compounds; as, red-breasted, red-cheeked, red-faced, red-haired, red- headed, red-skinned, red-tailed, red-topped, red-whiskered, red- coasted. Red admiral (Zoöl.), a beautiful butterfly (Vanessa Atalanta) common in both Europe and America. The front wings are crossed by a broad orange red band. The larva feeds on nettles. Called also Atlanta butterfly, and nettle butterfly. -- Red ant. (Zoöl.) (a) A very small ant (Myrmica molesta) which often infests houses. (b) A larger reddish ant (Formica sanquinea), native of Europe and America. It is one of the slave-making species. -- Red antimony (Min.), kermesite. See Kermes mineral (b), under Kermes. -- Red ash (Bot.), an American tree (Fraxinus pubescens), smaller than the white ash, and less valuable for timber. Cray. -- Red bass. (Zoöl.) See Redfish (d). -- Red bay (Bot.), a tree (Persea Caroliniensis) having the heartwood red, found in swamps in the Southern United States. -- Red beard (Zoöl.), a bright red sponge (Microciona prolifera), common on oyster shells and stones. [Local, U.S.] -- Red birch (Bot.), a species of birch (Betula nigra) having reddish brown bark, and compact, light-colored wood. Gray. -- Red blindness. (Med.) See Daltonism. -- Red book, a book containing the names of all the persons in the service of the state. [Eng.] -- Red book of the Exchequer, an ancient record in which are registered the names of all that held lands per baroniam in the time of Henry II. Brande & C. -- Red brass, an alloy containing eight parts of copper and three of zinc. -- Red bug. (Zoöl.) (a) A very small mite which in Florida attacks man, and produces great irritation by its bites. (b) A red hemipterous insect of the genus Pyrrhocoris, especially the European species (P. apterus), which is bright scarlet and lives in clusters on tree trunks. (c) See Cotton stainder, under Cotton. -- Red cedar. (Bot.) An evergreen North American tree (Juniperus Virginiana) having a fragrant red-colored heartwood. (b) A tree of India and Australia (Cedrela Toona) having fragrant reddish wood; -- called also toon tree in India. -- Red chalk. See under Chalk. -- Red copper (Min.), red oxide of copper; cuprite. -- Red coral (Zoöl.), the precious coral (Corallium rubrum). See Illusts. of Coral and Gorgonlacea. -- Red cross. The cross of St. George, the national emblem of the English. (b) The Geneva cross. See Geneva convention, and Geneva cross, under Geneva. -- Red currant. (Bot.) See Currant. -- Red deer. (Zoöl.) (a) The common stag (Cervus elaphus), native of the forests of the temperate parts of Europe and Asia. It is very similar to the American elk, or wapiti. (b) The Virginia deer. See Deer. -- Red duck (Zoöl.), a European reddish brown duck (Fuligula nyroca); -- called also ferruginous duck. -- Red ebony. (Bot.) See Grenadillo. -- Red empress (Zoöl.), a butterfly. See Tortoise shell. -- Red fir (Bot.), a coniferous tree (Pseudotsuga Douglasii) found from British Columbia to Texas, and highly valued for its durable timber. The name is sometimes given to other coniferous trees, as the Norway spruce and the American Abies magnifica and A. nobilis. -- Red fire. (Pyrotech.) See Blue fire, under Fire. -- Red flag. See under Flag. -- Red fox (Zoöl.), the common American fox (Vulpes fulvus), which is usually reddish in color. -- Red grouse (Zoöl.), the Scotch grouse, or ptarmigan. See under Ptarmigan. -- Red gum, or Red gum-tree (Bot.), a name given to eight Australian species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus amygdalina, resinifera, etc.) which yield a reddish gum resin. See Eucalyptus. -- Red hand (Her.), a left hand appaumé, fingers erect, borne on an escutcheon, being the mark of a baronet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; -- called also Badge of Ulster. -- Red herring, the common herring dried and smoked. -- Red horse. (Zoöl.) (a) Any large American red fresh-water sucker, especially Moxostoma macrolepidotum and allied species. (b) See the Note under Drumfish. -- Red lead. (Chem) See under Lead, and Minium. -- Red-lead ore. (Min.) Same as Crocoite. -- Red liquor (Dyeing), a solution consisting essentially of aluminium acetate, used as a mordant in the fixation of dyestuffs on vegetable fiber; -- so called because used originally for red dyestuffs. Called also red mordant. -- Red maggot (Zoöl.), the larva of the wheat midge. -- Red manganese. (Min.) Same as Rhodochrosite. -- Red man, one of the American Indians; -- so called from his color. -- Red maple (Bot.), a species of maple (Acer rubrum). See Maple. -- Red mite. (Zoöl.) See Red spider, below. -- Red mulberry (Bot.), an American mulberry of a dark purple color (Morus rubra). -- Red mullet (Zoöl.), the surmullet. See Mullet. -- Red ocher (Min.), a soft earthy variety of hematite, of a reddish color. -- Red perch (Zoöl.), the rosefish. -- Red phosphorus. (Chem.) See under Phosphorus. -- Red pine (Bot.), an American species of pine (Pinus resinosa); -- so named from its reddish bark. -- Red precipitate. See under Precipitate. -- Red Republican (European Politics), originally, one who maintained extreme republican doctrines in France, -- because a red liberty cap was the badge of the party; an extreme radical in social reform. [Cant] -- Red ribbon, the ribbon of the Order of the Bath in England. -- Red sanders. (Bot.) See Sanders. -- Red sandstone. (Geol.) See under Sandstone. -- Red scale (Zoöl.), a scale insect (Aspidiotus aurantii) very injurious to the orange tree in California and Australia. -- Red silver (Min.), an ore of silver, of a ruby-red or reddish black color. It includes proustite, or light red silver, and pyrargyrite, or dark red silver. -- Red snapper (Zoöl.), a large fish (Lutlanus aya or Blackfordii) abundant in the Gulf of Mexico and about the Florida reefs. -- Red snow, snow colored by a mocroscopic unicellular alga (Protococcus nivalis) which produces large patches of scarlet on the snows of arctic or mountainous regions. -- Red softening (Med.) a form of cerebral softening in which the affected parts are red, -- a condition due either to infarction or inflammation. -- Red spider (Zoöl.), a very small web-spinning mite (Tetranychus telarius) which infests, and often destroys, plants of various kinds, especially those cultivated in houses and conservatories. It feeds mostly on the under side of the leaves, and causes them to turn yellow and die. The adult insects are usually pale red. Called also red mite. -- Red squirrel (Zoöl.), the chickaree. -- Red tape, the tape used in public offices for tying up documents, etc.; hence, official formality and delay. -- Red underwing (Zoöl.), any species of noctuid moths belonging to Catacola and allied genera. The numerous species are mostly large and handsomely colored. The under wings are commonly banded with bright red or orange. -- Red water, a disease in cattle, so called from an appearance like blood in the urine.
1. The color of blood, or of that part of the spectrum farthest from violet, or a tint resembling these. "Celestial rosy red, love's proper hue." Milton. 2. A red pigment. 3. (European Politics) An abbreviation for Red Republican. See under Red, a. [Cant] 4. pl. (Med.) The menses. Dunglison. English red, a pigment prepared by the Dutch, similar to Indian red. -- Hypericum red, a red resinous dyestuff extracted from Hypericum. -- Indian red. See under Indian, and Almagra.
- See Aret. [Obs.] Chaucer.
To prepare for use, as flax, by separating the fibers from the woody part by process of soaking, macerating, and other treatment. Ure.
- imp. & p. p. of Ride, v. i. [Archaic] He rid to the end of the village, where he alighted. Thackeray.
1. To save; to rescue; to deliver; -- with out of. [Obs.] Deliver the poor and needy; rid them out of the hand of the wicked. Ps. lxxxii. 4. 2. To free; to clear; to disencumber; -- followed by of. "Rid all the sea of pirates." Shak. In never ridded myself of an overmastering and brooding sense of some great calamity traveling toward me. De Quincey. 3. To drive away; to remove by effort or violence; to make away with; to destroy. [Obs.] I will red evil beasts out of the land. Lev. xxvi. 6. Death's men, you have rid this sweet young prince! Shak. 4. To get over; to dispose of; to dispatch; to finish. [R.] "Willingness rids way." Shak. Mirth will make us rid ground faster than if thieves were at our tails. J. Webster. To be rid of, to be free or delivered from. -- To get rid of, to get deliverance from; to free one's self from.
- 3d pers. ssing. pres. of Ride, contracted from rideth. Chaucer.
- 1. A straight and slender stick; a wand; hence, any slender bar, as of wood or metal (applied to various purposes). Specifically: (a) An instrument of punishment or correction; figuratively, chastisement. He that spareth his rod hateth his son. Prov. xiii. 24. (b) A kind of sceptor, or badge of office; hence, figuratively, power; authority; tyranny; oppression. "The rod, and bird of peace." Shak. (c) A support for a fishing line; a fish pole. Gay. (d) (Mach. & Structure) A member used in tension, as for sustaining a suspended weight, or in tension and compression, as for transmitting reciprocating motion, etc.; a connecting bar. (e) An instrument for measuring. 2. A measure of length containing sixteen and a half feet; -- called also perch, and pole. Black rod. See in the Vocabulary. -- Rods and cones (Anat.), the elongated cells or elements of the sensory layer of the retina, some of which are cylindrical, others somewhat conical.
- 1. To undergo a process common to organic substances by which they lose the cohesion of their parts and pass through certain chemical changes, giving off usually in some stages of the process more or less offensive odors; to become decomposed by a natural process; to putrefy; to decay. Fixed like a plant on his peculiar spot, To draw nutrition, propagate, and rot. Pope. 2. Figuratively: To perish slowly; to decay; to die; to become corrupt. Four of the sufferers were left to rot in irons. Macaulay. Rot, poor bachelor, in your club. Thackeray. Syn. -- To putrefy; corrupt; decay; spoil.
1. To make putrid; to cause to be wholly or partially decomposed by natural processes; as, to rot vegetable fiber. 2. To expose, as flax, to a process of maceration, etc., for the purpose of separating the fiber; to ret.
1. Process of rotting; decay; putrefaction. 2. (Bot.) A disease or decay in fruits, leaves, or wood, supposed to be caused by minute fungi. See Bitter rot, Black rot, etc., below. 3. Etym: [Cf. G. rotz glanders.] A fatal distemper which attacks sheep and sometimes other animals. It is due to the presence of a parasitic worm in the liver or gall bladder. See 1st Fluke, 2. His cattle must of rot and murrain die. Milton. Bitter rot (Bot.), a disease of apples, caused by the fungus Glæosporium fructigenum. F. L. Scribner. -- Black rot (Bot.), a disease of grapevines, attacking the leaves and fruit, caused by the fungus Læstadia Bidwellii. F. L. Scribner. -- Dry rot (Bot.) See under Dry. -- Grinder's rot (Med.) See under Grinder. -- Potato rot. (Bot.) See under Potato. -- White rot (Bot.), a disease of grapes, first appearing in whitish pustules on the fruit, caused by the fungus Coniothyrium diplodiella. F. L. Scribner.
- 1. Redness; blush. [Obs.] 2. Ruddle; red ocher. 3. (Zoöl.) The rudd.
To make red. [Obs.] Spenser.
- 1. (Physiol.) Sexual desire or oestrus of deer, cattle, and various other mammals; heat; also, the period during which the oestrus exists. 2. Roaring, as of waves breaking upon the shore; rote. See Rote.
To have a strong sexual impulse at the reproductive period; -- said of deer, cattle, etc.
To cover in copulation. Dryden.
A track worn by a wheel or by habitual passage of anything; a groove in which anything runs. Also used figuratively. in a rut.
To make a rut or ruts in; -- chiefly used as a past participle or a participial adj; as, a rutted road.
- 1. Any slight appendage, as to an article of dress; something slight hanging loosely; specifically, a direction card, or label. 2. A metallic binding, tube, or point, at the end of a string, or lace, to stiffen it. 3. The end, or catchword, of an actor's speech; cue. 4. Something mean and paltry; the rabble. [Obs.] Tag and rag, the lowest sort; the rabble. Holinshed. 5. A sheep of the first year. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. A sale of usually used items (such as furniture, clothing, household items or bric-a-brac), conducted by one or a small group of individuals, at a location which is not a normal retail establishment. Note: Frequently it is held in the private home or in a yard attached to a private home belonging to the seller. Similar to a yard sale or garage sale. Compare flea market, where used items are sold by many individuals in a place rented for the purpose.
1. To fit with, or as with, a tag or tags. He learned to make long-tagged thread laces. Macaulay. His courteous host . . . Tags every sentence with some fawning word. Dryden. 2. To join; to fasten; to attach. Bolingbroke. 3. To follow closely after; esp., to follow and touch in the game of tag. See Tag, a play.
To follow closely, as it were an appendage; -- often with after; as, to tag after a person.
A child's play in which one runs after and touches another, and then runs away to avoid being touched.
- See Picul.
1. The bark of the oak, and some other trees, bruised and broken by a mill, for tanning hides; -- so called both before and after it has been used. Called also tan bark. 2. A yellowish-brown color, like that of tan. 3. A brown color imparted to the skin by exposure to the sun; as, hands covered with tan. Tan bed (Hort.), a bed made of tan; a bark bed. -- Tan pickle, the liquor used in tanning leather. -- Tan spud, a spud used in stripping bark for tan from trees. -- Tan stove. See Bark stove, under Bark. -- Tan vat, a vat in which hides are steeped in liquor with tan.
Of the color of tan; yellowish-brown. Black and tan. See under Black, a.
1. To convert (the skin of an animal) into leather, as by usual process of steeping it in an infusion of oak or some other bark, whereby it is impregnated with tannin, or tannic acid (which exists in several species of bark), and is thus rendered firm, durable, and in some degree impervious to water. Note: The essential result in tanning is due to the fact that the tannins form, with gelatins and albuminoids, a series of insoluble compounds which constitute leather. Similar results may be produced by the use of other reagents in place of tannin, as alum, and some acids or chlorides, which are employed in certain processes of tanning. 2. To make brown; to imbrown, as by exposure to the rays of the sun; as, to tan the skin.
To get or become tanned.
- A sheep in its second year; also, a doe in its second year. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.
- One more than nine; twice five. With twice ten sail I crossed the Phrygian Sea. Dryden. Note: Ten is often used, indefinitely, for several, many, and other like words. There 's proud modesty in merit, Averse from begging, and resolved to pay Ten times the gift it asks. Dryden.
1. The number greater by one than nine; the sum of five and five; ten units of objects. I will not destroy it for ten's sake. Gen. xviii. 32. 2. A symbol representing ten units, as 10, x, or X.
- 1. A game among children. See Tag. 2. A capacious, flat-bottomed drinking cup, generally with four handles, formerly used for passing around the table at convivial entertainment.
- 1. (Chem.) An elementary substance found as an oxide in the mineral cassiterite, and reduced as a soft white crystalline metal, malleable at ordinary temperatures, but brittle when heated. It is not easily oxidized in the air, and is used chiefly to coat iron to protect it from rusting, in the form of tin foil with mercury to form the reflective surface of mirrors, and in solder, bronze, speculum metal, and other alloys. Its compounds are designated as stannous, or stannic. Symbol Sn (Stannum). Atomic weight 117.4. 2. Thin plates of iron covered with tin; tin plate. 3. Money. [Cant] Beaconsfield. Block tin (Metal.), commercial tin, cast into blocks, and partially refined, but containing small quantities of various impurities, as copper, lead, iron, arsenic, etc.; solid tin as distinguished from tin plate; -- called also bar tin. -- Butter of tin. (Old Chem.) See Fuming liquor of Libavius, under Fuming. -- Grain tin. (Metal.) See under Grain. -- Salt of tin (Dyeing), stannous chloride, especially so called when used as a mordant. -- Stream tin. See under Stream. -- Tin cry (Chem.), the peculiar creaking noise made when a bar of tin is bent. It is produced by the grating of the crystal granules on each other. -- Tin foil, tin reduced to a thin leaf. -- Tin frame (Mining), a kind of buddle used in washing tin ore. -- Tin liquor, Tin mordant (Dyeing), stannous chloride, used as a mordant in dyeing and calico printing. -- Tin penny, a customary duty in England, formerly paid to tithingmen for liberty to dig in tin mines. [Obs.] Bailey. -- Tin plate, thin sheet iron coated with tin. -- Tin pyrites. See Stannite.
To cover with tin or tinned iron, or to overlay with tin foil.
- To put toggery, or togs, on; to dress; -- usually with out, implying care, elaborateness, or the like. [Colloq. or Slang] Harper's Weekly.
- pl. of Toe. Chaucer.
The common tunny, or house mackerel.
The prevailing fashion or mode; vogue; as, things of ton. Byron. If our people of ton are selfish, at any rate they show they are selfish. Thackeray. Bon ton. See in the Vocabulary.
A measure of weight or quantity. Specifically: -- (a) The weight of twenty hundredweight. Note: In England, the ton is 2,240 pounds. In the United States the ton is commonly estimated at 2,000 pounds, this being sometimes called the short ton, while that of 2,240 pounds is called the long ton. (b) (Naut. & Com.) Forty cubic feet of space, being the unit of measurement of the burden, or carrying capacity, of a vessel; as a vessel of 300 tons burden. See the Note under Tonnage. (c) (Naut. & Com.) A certain weight or quantity of merchandise, with reference to transportation as freight; as, six hundred weight of ship bread in casks, seven hundred weight in bags, eight hundred weight in bulk; ten bushels of potatoes; eight sacks, or ten barrels, of flour; forty cubic feet of rough, or fifty cubic feet of hewn, timber, etc. Note: Ton and tun have the same etymology, and were formerly used interchangeably; but now ton generally designates the weight, and tun the cask. See Tun.
- 1. To pull or draw with great effort; to draw along with continued exertion; to haul along; to tow; as, to tug a loaded cart; to tug a ship into port. There sweat, there strain, tug the laborious oar. Roscommon. 2. To pull; to pluck. [Obs.] To ease the pain, His tugged cars suffered with a strain. Hudibras.
1. To pull with great effort; to strain in labor; as, to tug at the oar; to tug against the stream. He tugged, he shook, till down they came. Milton. 2. To labor; to strive; to struggle. England now is left To tug and scamble and to part by the teeth The unowed interest of proud-swelling state. Shak.
1. A pull with the utmost effort, as in the athletic contest called tug of war; a supreme effort. At the tug he falls, Vast ruins come along, rent from the smoking walls. Dryden. 2. A sort of vehicle, used for conveying timber and heavy articles. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. 3. (Naut.) A small, powerful steamboat used to tow vessels; -- called also steam tug, tugboat, and towboat. 4. A trace, or drawing strap, of a harness. 5. (Mining.) An iron hook of a hoisting tub, to which a tackle is affixed. Tug iron, an iron hook or button to which a tug or trace may be attached, as on the shaft of a wagon.
- 1. A large cask; an oblong vessel bulging in the middle, like a pipe or puncheon, and girt with hoops; a wine cask. 2. (Brewing) A fermenting vat. 3. A certain measure for liquids, as for wine, equal to two pipes, four hogsheads, or 252 gallons. In different countries, the tun differs in quantity. 4. (Com.) A weight of 2,240 pounds. See Ton. [R.] 5. An indefinite large quantity. Shak. A tun of man in thy large bulk is writ. Dryden. 6. A drunkard; -- so called humorously, or in contempt. 7. (Zoöl.) Any shell belonging to Dolium and allied genera; -- called also tun-shell.
To put into tuns, or casks. Boyle.